All About June Birthstone: Discover Pearl Types and Their Formation
It is difficult to imagine more of a household name gem than pearl. Yet, not everyone might know that pearl is the traditional birthstone for June. The traditional list of birthstones originated in Poland between 16th and 18th centuries. Today’s calendar features traditional birthstones as well as newly incorporated “modern birthstones” whose list was published by the National Association of Jewelers in 1912. June’s modern birthstone is alexandrite.
Pearl is famed for being the only gem created by the living creature. This organic and luminous gemstone can be found in both salt and freshwater mollusks, in various oceans, rivers, and lakes around the world. Natural occurring pearls are extremely rare and, therefore, costly. This is why the majority of pearls on market today are cultured. Cultured pearls are still formed by mollusks, but instead of forming by chance in the wilderness of deep waters, they grow in the man-controlled environment. This concept is referred to as pearl farming.
HOW ARE PEARLS FORMED?
Natural pearls are formed when an irritant, usually a grain of sand or a similar particle, enters the oyster. As a defense mechanism, the oyster starts releasing the fluid to coat the irritant. Several layers of coating, known as nacre, must be deposited before a beautiful lustrous pearl is born.
Cultured pearls undergo the same process as natural pearls except that the irritant is surgically implanted into an oyster by a human before being placed back into the water. This enables pearl farmers to control the size and color of the pearls they’re cultivating.
PEARL TYPES BY ORIGIN
Pearls are split into two major categories – freshwater and saltwater. As the name suggests, freshwater pearls are those found in rivers and lakes, while saltwater pearls come from oceans. Additionally, saltwater pearls are further divided into different subcategories.
Freshwater pearls are more abundant and less expensive than saltwater pearls. They come in a vast number of shapes and colors. China is the biggest producer of freshwater pearls with the largest variety. Other considerable sources are Japan and the US.
Saltwater pearls hold a higher value than freshwater pearls by producing higher-grade luxurious quality pearls. Three major varieties of saltwater pearls are Akoya, Tahitian, and the South Sea.
Akoya is a Japanese pearl produced by the Pinctada fucata oyster. They are the most common among saltwater pearls. Also, they’re the first cultured pearls to exist. Mikimoto Kokichi, a Japanese entrepreneur, initiated the process of Akoya pearls creation in the early 1900s and is recognized as the founder of the cultured pearl industry. Akoya are considered the classic pearls used for jewelry, especially necklaces, with perfect round shapes, bright glossy luster, and neutral colors. They are favored by most retailers and consumers as the standard pearl choice.
Often referred to as “black pearls”, Tahitian pearls come in a variety of colors although it’s true that they have predominantly darker hues. These are the pearls that have that glamorous metallic look about them such as deep green, blue, purple, and gray metallic. What is fascinating about Tahitian pearls is that they display the endless combination of colors found in a single pearl. In other words, they are multicolor pearls. This also increases their value and price. Tahitian pearls are produced in the mollusk shell of a mature Pinctada margaritifera oyster and are mainly found along French Polynesia and Tahiti.
SOUTH SEA PEARLS
The ultimate luxury pearls – South Sea pearls – are the most sought-after cultured pearls on the market. Produced by the Pinctada maxima oyster, they bear the highest value due to their scarcity and large size. South Sea pearls are the largest among all and, in that sense, the most desirable and glamorous. They also have the hardest nacre, which means that they are the strongest and most durable of all pearls. Furthermore, they are prized for their satin-like luster and silky overtones.
South Sea Pearls take a longer time to grow than other pearls. Their growth time is anywhere between two to four years compared to the Akoya pearls that take about half a year to develop. Their name also indicates their birthplace as they are found in the South Pacific Ocean. Based on their color and origin, they are split into two categories: Golden South Sea and White South Sea pearls.
Golden South Sea Pearls
Golden South Sea pearls are predominantly grown in the Philippines and Indonesia. Their warm golden complexion gives them their name. Typically, their value depends on the color as the deeper it gets the higher the price point. Colors range from creamy white to deep gold, sometimes referred to as yellow gold or champagne.
White South Sea Pearls
White South Sea pearls come in shades of white and silver and are found off of the Australian coast of the South Pacific Ocean. They are the rarer of the two types of South Sea pearls and subsequently have the highest value. They’re renowned for their opulence and splendor and symbol of elegance and grandeur.
PEARL TYPES BY SHAPE
Keshi Pearls are a unique pearl phenomenon. Instead of forming as a result of a nucleus that is created in the oyster’s soft mantle tissue, like all other pearls, they form independently of it. In other words, they form accidentally when a bead nucleus is rejected during the production of cultured pearls. Therefore, Keshi pearls are completely natural and are nothing but pure nacre. And because of this, there is nothing to stop the reflection of light during their creation, making them extremely lustrous and glowy. Only a few millimeters in size, they look like a misshaped pebbles and have a variety of different shapes. One of those is referred to as cornflake pearl. All of this makes Keshi pearls highly sought after.
Baroque Pearls are not the traditional perfectly round pearls we’re used to seeing, but have an irregular, uneven, and lumpy look. They are common among cultured freshwater pearls although they can be found in saltwater pearls too, usually in a teardrop shape. Baroque pearls make up only 10% of the freshwater pearls, meaning that they are even rarer in saltwater pearls. They are regarded as more of modern pearl types and cater to authentic pearl seekers. Baroque pearls were used greatly in Victorian and in Art Nouveau pieces.
Until next time,